Dog genetic code

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狗的遗传密码

Over the past 14,000 years, more than 400 dogs have been produced through continuous domestication. Each has a unique physique, fur color, and habits. In order to discover the genetic mutations that cause specific traits in dogs, in 2009 Akey et al. Analyzed the genomes of 275 domestic dogs in 10 breeds. Previous research has found genes that produce specific characteristics, such as the short legs of a dachshund. They analyzed a range of dog breeds to determine the effects of centuries of selective breeding on the entire dog genome. The authors scanned the genetic records of nearly 300 dogs, including beagles, border collies, jack russell dogs, sharpei dogs, and standard poodles, and determined how selective breeding affected the genomes of these animals. The authors found that 155 different genetic locations may have played a role in generating the characteristics of purebred dogs, and suggested that this information may provide clues to the genes that produce specific breed shapes. For example, this group of scientists suggested that different versions of the HAS2 gene might have brought Shar Pei its unique wrinkled or smooth outer skin. Compared to the study of dog appearance characteristics, there are fewer studies on physiological characteristics. In 2012, Chen et al. Classified and sequenced the olfactory receptor gene family of dogs and wolves, and found that due to domestication, reproductive isolation, the evolutionary direction of olfactory receptor genes in dogs and wolves are not the same, and the olfactory receptor gene sequences in rural dogs in China More conservative. [7]

Lindblad-Toh和Erik Axelsson对来自世界各地的12只狼和代表14个不同品种的60只狗的整个基因组进行了测序。该研究小组最终提出了36个区域和总共122个基因的清单。这些区域的一半包含大脑基因。有6个区域和10个基因参与脂肪和淀粉的消化。具体来说,狗携带额外的淀粉酶基因拷贝,现在它们产生的这种蛋白质比狼的多28倍。另外,由于该酶基因中的一些突变,狗产生的麦芽糖酶-葡糖淀粉酶的含量是后者的12倍。第三个基因SGLT1中的突变增强了肠道糖吸收蛋白的功能。表明淀粉的消化与狗的进化有关

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